This article provides an up-to-date survey of hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks that leverage on the respective strengths of optical and wireless. A definitive objective of Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) systems is the meeting of different optical and wireless innovations under a solitary base keeping in mind the end. Survey Smoothly Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Accessing Wireless Networks: Convergence and Challenges. Naseer Hwaidi Alkhazaali, Raed Abduljabbar Aljiznawi.
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Toward this end, the authors investigated an energy-aware routing algorithm. The availability of a path can be calculated as the product of the availabilities of the individual links, whereby the most available path is defined as the path with the highest availability from the source node to the destination node of a given connection fiberwireless.
Future broadband access networks will be bimodal, capitalizing on the respective strengths of both technologies and smartly merging them in order to realize future-proof fiber-wireless FiWi networks that strengthen our information society while avoiding its digital divide. Section 2 describes related research topics and defines Nettworks access networks as a new research area.
More interestingly, to better comprehend the true potential of the aforementioned emerging trends, it is helpful to put them into a wider nontechnical context and see how they fit into the bigger picture of present and past economic recessions. Note, however, that FMC does not necessarily imply the physical convergence of networks. Also note that the capacity of the PON is much higher than that of the wireless front-end such that peer-to-peer traffic can be easily carried in the optical backhaul without suffering from any serious throughput penalty.
In fact, the throughput-delay ratio of the wireless front-end increases for a growing number of multiple-radio mesh routers. Clearly, to exploit the benefits of steering peer-to-peer traffic along wireless-optical-wireless paths, the placement of ONUs has a great impact on the achievable throughput of FiWi networks.
In the following, we describe various proposed routing algorithms for the wireless front-end of FiWi access networks. According to networkd Federal Communications Commission FCCbroadband enables individuals and enterprises to access a wide range of resources, services, and products related to education, culture, entertainment, telemedicine, e-commerce, public safety, and homeland security.
The proposed optimal routing algorithm yields a bound on the throughput gain in FiWi networks. However, it is important to note that the performance of the integrated resource management framework largely depends on the network size and traffic profile.
Optical and wireless technologies can be thought of as quite complementary and will expectedly coexist over the next decades. Furthermore, we elaborate on various techniques to provide service differentiation and end-to-end guaranteed QoS and enable QoS continuity across the optical-wireless interface of FiWi broadband networka networks.
It was shown that when the load of a particular ONU is increased, more traffic is diverted toward gateways collocated with other ONUs. More precisely, if the primary gateway fails, then all the paths to neteorks gateway become stale and packets destined for surveg primary gateway are rerouted through live PGG paths. The WLAN mesh front-end of FiWi access networks may be used to provide WiFi offloading of rapidly increasing mobile data traffic from cellular networks, thereby avoiding the need for capacity upgrades while at the same time helping reduce the complexity of future mobile networks.
As we will see shortly, different challenges were addressed such as routing and wireless channel assignment, which can be performed completely either in the wireless domain by the base station BS or access point APor by an optical network element, for example, CO or optical line terminal OLT. To do so, the residual capacity of each link is assigned as its weight and LSA messages are periodically sent to inform all other network nodes about the current residual capacity of each link.
In fact, the convergence at the network facilities level, where an operator uses the same physical network infrastructure with common transmission and switching systems to provide both mobile and fixed services, is more accurately referred to as fixed mobile integration FMI [ 11 ].
Current requirements for CPRI are very demanding in terms of maximum line rate 9. Current power grids with their aging infrastructure become increasingly unreliable and are poorly survy to face increasingly frequent outages, for example, the three-day blackout due to trees falling on power lines in the Washington D.
Park International Conference on Networking…. The greedy algorithm starts with a given distribution of wireless end-users, which might be randomly or deterministically chosen, and consists of two phases. The presented simulation results show that under different network sizes the proposed tabu search heuristic outperforms random and fixed ONU placement schemes in terms of achievable network throughput, especially for an increasing number of ONUs.
On the acceas hand, fixed and mobile WiMAX defines four and five scheduling services to support different traffic classes, respectively, while in IEEE The network is periodically monitored during prespecified intervals. Challenges and Solutions Chadi M. Given that a significant proportion of the path delay generally occurs at fiber-wirelesa wireless bottleneck links between gateways and their adjacent wireless mesh routers, the delay performance can be improved by attaching external buffers to these routers.
The Energy Internet will be instrumental in realizing the vision of the smart grid by incorporating sophisticated sensing, monitoring, information, and communications technologies to provide better power grid performance, engage customers to play an interactive role, and support a wide range of additional services to both utilities and consumers.
The presented simulation results investigated the average packet delay for CaDAR under the assumption of equally and unequally loaded ONUs. View at Scopus N. Once the location of the ONUs is fixed, each wireless node calculates the shortest path in terms of hops within the wireless mesh front-end to each ONU and selects the ONU with the minimal hop surveyy.
Specifically, to avoid the electronic bottleneck, the generation of RF signals is best done optically.