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It is always desirable to keep input impedances high, and anyway it’s a shame to load the input with the divider, which, after all, is only there to bias the transistor.

You can amuse yourself by thinking of variations on these bad circuits, and then avoiding them! We remarked that FETs behave like pretty good transconductance devices over most of the graph i. They are also better voltage sources, with output impedances measured in milli- ohms, ad75512 coefficients of a few parts per million per degree centigrade, i 2. But Ic varies as the output signal varies. Aombinarion current a ,1, ,L,,l ,,l. Still, the circuit is attractive because of the sim— plicity of a two—terminal constant—current Page 78 device.

Something like an emitter follower, a field-effect tran- sistor FETor an op—amp presents a good load. This resistance is significant only when small emitter resistors or none at all are used.

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Thus Q2 shields Q1 from voltage swings. This kind of PET is known as enhancement mode. The circuit in Figure 2. The input signal sees, in parallel, k, 10k, datsaheet the impedance looking into the base. The VNOl comes in various voltage ratings, indicated by the last two digits of the part number.


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A voltage divider dqtasheet OK, as long as it is stiff enough. VBE is the base—to—emitter voltage drop, for in- stance. Superbeta matched pairs are available for use in low-level amplifiers that require matched characteristics, a topic we will discuss in Section 2.

It’s all done with mirrors. Second, FETs often have considerably larger capacitance than equiv- alent bipolar transistors. The distinction between dc cur— rent gain hFE and small—signal current gain h fe isn’t always made clear, and the term beta is used for both.

Engineers sometimes like to write the gain in terms of the transconductance, to put it in a form that holds for FETs also see Section 3. As you will see, transistors have an excitement all their own. Good sta— bility with load variations is achieved through cascode transistor Datashdet, which reduces voltage variations across Q1. In ad— dition, the current isn’t easily programma- ble, i.

AD7511 Datasheet PDF

The result is that both current—determining transistors Q1 and Dafasheet have fixed collector—emitter drops; you can think of Q3 as simply passing the output current through to a variable- voltage load a similar trick is datasheey in the cascode connection, which you will see later in the chapter. Current mirrors with current ratios other than 1: That is so because the base-emitter drop datashdet on collector current, which changes with av7512 signal level. The voltage between the bases of the output transistors must now be a bit greater than two diode drops, and you provide the extra with adjustable biasing resistor R2 often replaced by a third series diode.


An additional concern here is the ability of the phase-splitter circuit to drive the Ratasheet phase shifter as a load. E] Matched biasing transistor Use a matched transistor to generate the correct base voltage for the required col— lector current; this ensures automatic tem— perature compensation Fig.

It is possible to improve the linearity, and simultaneously the range of VDS over which a FET behaves like a resistor, by a simple compensation scheme.

There is one additional quantity we will need on occasion, although it is not derivable from the Ebers—Moll equation. The base voltage is chosen to give lmA of emitter current, with impedance about one—tenth the dc im- pedance looking into the base in this case about k. However, for real-world val- ues of k which is determined by FET ge— ometry, carrier mobility, etc.

To put this point another way, a low value of small—signal output fatasheet doesn’t. It has a unique property, though: Multiple outputs and current ratios Current mirrors can be expanded to source or sink, with npn transistors current to several loads.